picture survey group

Independence

This process is of paramount importance for expedition providers. The expedition must be conducted within a safety framework which is acceptable to all stakeholders, and the surest way to achieve this is to have experienced leaders making all the decisions. There is a clear educational argument against this didactic approach - to adopt it removes all opportunity for participants to experience genuine decision-making, that act in which the group's values are projected onto world, and in which learning with real consequences takes place.

The expedition as a learning opportunity may be entirely undermined by setting up contrived or artificial 'scenarios' where the real consequences are somehow mitigated or controlled. Genuine interaction with the environment is most valued by participants (Sheldon 2009).

Allowed to make choices and mistakes (Allison & Von Wald 2010)
Limitations of operating inside provider's safety net (Pike & Beames 2007)
Participants' mixed views towards provider risk assessment (Sheldon 2009)