picture survey group

Positive Responses to Stress

This process differs only slightly from the person-centered leadership style detailed previously. However, two studies have highlighted the importance of promoting a particular response to the physical and social stressors experiences on expedition. Participants who adopt avoidance or resignation strategies tend to exhibit less positive personality change (Watts et al 1993 (b)). It follows that it is the responsibility of expedition leaders to promote those responses to stress which are more likely to lead to personal development. Cashel (1994) identified cooperative interdependence ("the perception that one is linked with others in a way that one cannot succeed unless they do") as the most positive response, and this accords with outcomes such as increased sociability and ability to reflect.

Promote cooperative interdependence (Cashel 1994)
Use of avoidance/resignation strategies in dealing with stress predicts less positive personality change (Watts et al 1993b)