What Can Young People Learn on Expedition?

Greenaway (1998) adapts a model originally developed by Giges & Rosenfeld (1976) which he terms the 'four arrows'.

It is a description of the ways in which a person may develop during a given educational experience:

"personal growth can be viewed as making new connections in any of several directions:.

diagram

For Greenaway, this model is effective because it lends structure and definition to the typically amorphous term 'personal development'. He claims that the model gives educators concrete goals to work towards, and as such it is a natural fit with youth expedition planning. We know that the outcomes from expeditions are not generalised but rather highly individual (Kennedy 1992; Rea 2006), and so we believe that this model provides us with a way of organising those outcomes accordingly.